Benikov Law Firm



 13-3407.  Possession, use, administration, acquisition, sale, manufacture or transportation of dangerous drugs; classification

A. A person shall not knowingly:

1. Possess or use a dangerous drug.

2. Possess a dangerous drug for sale.

3. Possess equipment or chemicals, or both, for the purpose of manufacturing a dangerous drug.

4. Manufacture a dangerous drug.

5. Administer a dangerous drug to another person.

6. Obtain or procure the administration of a dangerous drug by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation or subterfuge.

7. Transport for sale, import into this state or offer to transport for sale or import into this state, sell, transfer or offer to sell or transfer a dangerous drug.

B. A person who violates:

1. Subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section is guilty of a class 4 felony. Unless the drug involved is lysergic acid diethylamide, methamphetamine, amphetamine or phencyclidine or the person was previously convicted of a felony offense or a violation of this section or section 13-3408, the court on motion of the state, considering the nature and circumstances of the offense, for a person not previously convicted of any felony offense or a violation of this section or section 13-3408 may enter judgment of conviction for a class 1 misdemeanor and make disposition accordingly or may place the defendant on probation in accordance with chapter 9 of this title and refrain from designating the offense as a felony or misdemeanor until the probation is successfully terminated. The offense shall be treated as a felony for all purposes until the court enters an order designating the offense a misdemeanor.

2. Subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

3. Subsection A, paragraph 3 of this section is guilty of a class 3 felony, except that if the offense involved methamphetamine, the person is guilty of a class 2 felony.

4. Subsection A, paragraph 4 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

5. Subsection A, paragraph 5 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

6. Subsection A, paragraph 6 of this section is guilty of a class 3 felony.

7. Subsection A, paragraph 7 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

C. Except as provided in subsection E of this section, a person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 1, 3 or 6 and who has not previously been convicted of any felony or who has not been sentenced pursuant to section 13-703, section 13-704, section 13-706, subsection A, section 13-708, subsection D or any other law making the convicted person ineligible for probation is eligible for probation.

D. Except as provided in subsection E of this section, if the aggregate amount of dangerous drugs involved in one offense or all of the offenses that are consolidated for trial equals or exceeds the statutory threshold amount, a person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 2, 5 or 7 of this section is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis until the person has served the sentence imposed by the court, the person is eligible for release pursuant to section 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted.

E. If the person is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 2, 3, 4 or 7 of this section and the drug involved is methamphetamine, the person shall be sentenced as follows:

Minimum Presumptive Maximum 5 calendar years 10 calendar years 15 calendar years

A person who has previously been convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 2, 3, 4 or 7 of this section involving methamphetamine or section 13-3407.01 shall be sentenced as follows:

Minimum Presumptive Maximum 10 calendar years 15 calendar years 20 calendar years

F. A person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 4 of this section or subsection A, paragraph 2, 3 or 7 of this section involving methamphetamine is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis until the person has served the sentence imposed by the court, the person is eligible for release pursuant to section 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted.

G. If a person is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 5 of this section, if the drug is administered without the other person's consent, if the other person is under eighteen years of age and if the drug is flunitrazepam, gamma hydroxy butrate or ketamine hydrochloride, the convicted person is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis until the person has served the sentence imposed by the court, the person is eligible for release pursuant to section 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted.

H. In addition to any other penalty prescribed by this title, the court shall order a person who is convicted of a violation of this section to pay a fine of not less than one thousand dollars or three times the value as determined by the court of the dangerous drugs involved in or giving rise to the charge, whichever is greater, and not more than the maximum authorized by chapter 8 of this title. A judge shall not suspend any part or all of the imposition of any fine required by this subsection.

I. A person who is convicted of a violation of this section for which probation or release before the expiration of the sentence imposed by the court is authorized is prohibited from using any marijuana, dangerous drug, narcotic drug or prescription-only drug except as lawfully administered by a health care practitioner and as a condition of any probation or release shall be required to submit to drug testing administered under the supervision of the probation department of the county or the state department of corrections, as appropriate, during the duration of the term of probation or before the expiration of the sentence imposed.

J. If a person who is convicted of a violation of this section is granted probation, the court shall order that as a condition of probation the person perform not less than three hundred sixty hours of community restitution with an agency or organization that provides counseling, rehabilitation or treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, an agency or organization that provides medical treatment to persons who abuse controlled substances, an agency or organization that serves persons who are victims of crime or any other appropriate agency or organization.

K. The presumptive term imposed pursuant to subsection E of this section may be mitigated or aggravated pursuant to section 13-701, subsections D and E.


​13-3408.  Possession, use, administration, acquisition, sale, manufacture or transportation of narcotic drugs; classification

A. A person shall not knowingly:

1. Possess or use a narcotic drug.

2. Possess a narcotic drug for sale.

3. Possess equipment or chemicals, or both, for the purpose of manufacturing a narcotic drug.

4. Manufacture a narcotic drug.

5. Administer a narcotic drug to another person.

6. Obtain or procure the administration of a narcotic drug by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation or subterfuge.

7. Transport for sale, import into this state, offer to transport for sale or import into this state, sell, transfer or offer to sell or transfer a narcotic drug.

B. A person who violates:

1. Subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section is guilty of a class 4 felony.

2. Subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

3. Subsection A, paragraph 3 of this section is guilty of a class 3 felony.

4. Subsection A, paragraph 4 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

5. Subsection A, paragraph 5 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

6. Subsection A, paragraph 6 of this section is guilty of a class 3 felony.

7. Subsection A, paragraph 7 of this section is guilty of a class 2 felony.

C. A person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 1, 3 or 6 of this section and who has not previously been convicted of any felony or who has not been sentenced pursuant to section 13-703, section 13-704, subsection A, B, C, D or E, section 13-706, subsection A, section 13-708, subsection D or any other provision of law making the convicted person ineligible for probation is eligible for probation.

D. If the aggregate amount of narcotic drugs involved in one offense or all of the offenses that are consolidated for trial equals or exceeds the statutory threshold amount, a person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 2, 5 or 7 of this section is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis until the person has served the sentence imposed by the court, the person is eligible for release pursuant to section 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted.

E. A person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 4 of this section is not eligible for suspension of sentence, probation, pardon or release from confinement on any basis until the person has served the sentence imposed by the court, the person is eligible for release pursuant to section 41-1604.07 or the sentence is commuted.

F. In addition to any other penalty prescribed by this title, the court shall order a person who is convicted of a violation of this section to pay a fine of not less than two thousand dollars or three times the value as determined by the court of the narcotic drugs involved in or giving rise to the charge, whichever is greater, and not more than the maximum authorized by chapter 8 of this title. A judge shall not suspend any part or all of the imposition of any fine required by this subsection.

G. A person who is convicted of a violation of this section for which probation or release before the expiration of the sentence imposed by the court is authorized is prohibited from using any marijuana, dangerous drug, narcotic drug or prescription-only drug except as lawfully administered by a health care practitioner and as a condition of any probation or release shall be required to submit to drug testing administered under the supervision of the probation department of the county or the state department of corrections, as appropriate, during the duration of the term of probation or before the expiration of the sentence imposed.

H. If a person who is convicted of a violation of this section is granted probation, the court shall order that as a condition of probation the person perform not less than three hundred sixty hours of community restitution with an agency or organization that provides counseling, rehabilitation or treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, an agency or organization that provides medical treatment to persons who abuse controlled substances, an agency or organization that serves persons who are victims of crime or any other appropriate agency or organization.



13-3415.  Possession, manufacture, delivery and advertisement of drug paraphernalia; definitions; violation; classification; civil forfeiture; factors

A. It is unlawful for any person to use, or to possess with intent to use, drug paraphernalia to plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain, conceal, inject, ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body a drug in violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a class 6 felony.

B. It is unlawful for any person to deliver, possess with intent to deliver or manufacture with intent to deliver drug paraphernalia knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that it will be used to plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain, conceal, inject, ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body a drug in violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a class 6 felony.

C. It is unlawful for a person to place in a newspaper, magazine, handbill or other publication any advertisement knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that the purpose of the advertisement, in whole or in part, is to promote the sale of objects designed or intended for use as drug paraphernalia. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a class 6 felony.

D. All drug paraphernalia is subject to forfeiture pursuant to chapter 39 of this title. The failure to charge or acquittal of an owner or anyone in control of drug paraphernalia in violation of this chapter does not prevent a finding that the object is intended for use or designed for use as drug paraphernalia.

E. In determining whether an object is drug paraphernalia, a court or other authority shall consider, in addition to all other logically relevant factors, the following:

1. Statements by an owner or by anyone in control of the object concerning its use.

2. Prior convictions, if any, of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, under any state or federal law relating to any drug.

3. The proximity of the object, in time and space, to a direct violation of this chapter.

4. The proximity of the object to drugs.

5. The existence of any residue of drugs on the object.

6. Direct or circumstantial evidence of the intent of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, to deliver it to persons whom he knows, or should reasonably know, intend to use the object to facilitate a violation of this chapter.

7. Instructions, oral or written, provided with the object concerning its use.

8. Descriptive materials accompanying the object which explain or depict its use.

9. National and local advertising concerning its use.

10. The manner in which the object is displayed for sale.

11. Whether the owner, or anyone in control of the object, is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products.

12. Direct or circumstantial evidence of the ratio of sales of the object to the total sales of the business enterprise.

13. The existence and scope of legitimate uses for the object in the community.

14. Expert testimony concerning its use.

F. In this section, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. "Drug" means any narcotic drug, dangerous drug, marijuana or peyote.

2. "Drug paraphernalia" means all equipment, products and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing, concealing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling or otherwise introducing into the human body a drug in violation of this chapter. It includes:

(a) Kits used, intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing or harvesting any species of plant which is a drug or from which a drug can be derived.

(b) Kits used, intended for use or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing or preparing drugs.

(c) Isomerization devices used, intended for use or designed for use in increasing the potency of any species of plant which is a drug.

(d) Testing equipment used, intended for use or designed for use in identifying or analyzing the strength, effectiveness or purity of drugs.

(e) Scales and balances used, intended for use or designed for use in weighing or measuring drugs.

(f) Diluents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, mannite, dextrose and lactose, used, intended for use or designed for use in cutting drugs.

(g) Separation gins and sifters used, intended for use or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or in otherwise cleaning or refining, marijuana.

(h) Blenders, bowls, containers, spoons and mixing devices used, intended for use or designed for use in compounding drugs.

(i) Capsules, balloons, envelopes and other containers used, intended for use or designed for use in packaging small quantities of drugs.

(j) Containers and other objects used, intended for use or designed for use in storing or concealing drugs.

(k) Hypodermic syringes, needles and other objects used, intended for use or designed for use in parenterally injecting drugs into the human body.

(l) Objects used, intended for use or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling or otherwise introducing marijuana, a narcotic drug, a dangerous drug, hashish or hashish oil into the human body, such as:

(i) Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads or punctured metal bowls.

(ii) Water pipes.

(iii) Carburetion tubes and devices.

(iv) Smoking and carburetion masks.

(v) Roach clips, meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand.

(vi) Miniature cocaine spoons and cocaine vials.

(vii) Chamber pipes.

(viii) Carburetor pipes.

(ix) Electric pipes.

(x) Air-driven pipes.

(xi) Chillums.

(xii) Bongs.

(xiii) Ice pipes or chillers.